(1) standards for building duck houses
1, site selection requires quiet, clean, remote, independent; higher terrain, dry ground; away from villages, sewage ditch, factories and mining enterprises.
2. The Duck House should be cool in summer and warm in winter. The air should be fresh and the heat insulation is good. The wall and the top of the duck house should be thick.
3, Ducks do not like strong light, house wall skin and the ground to hardening. Duck House do not leave skylights, windows on both sides to low, easy ventilation. The duck house ventilation mainly depends on ventilation fan, but also can use natural ventilation, the use of ceiling fan is not significant.
4, bedding to high-quality rice husk, wheat straw-based, soft requirements, clean, no mildew. Summer duck can pad water washing sand, had better not use soil, sawdust and other bedding. It is a developing direction to raise duck with shelf and net, which can improve the breeding condition and level of farmers and increase its economic benefit.
(2) the feeding method of meat duck
1, the ground level feeding. Many duck farmers used to raise chickens, and the conditions for raising them on the ground were almost the same as those for raising broiler chickens, many breeders have gone into the misunderstanding of broiler breeding, duck disease increased, low efficiency.
2. Do it online. It is another technological revolution in the development of modern breeding, which is related to the improvement and improvement of the raising level and benefit of the breeders. As the duck timid, online breeding must pay attention to the stability of scaffolding mat net to high, elastic to small, so that the duck smooth activities.
(3) the difference between temperature meat-type ducklings and egg-type ducklings, one is the higher temperature requirement, the other is the higher nutrition requirement of feed. In production practice, high temperature brood method is usually used to brood brood. It has the advantages of fast growth, good absorption of yolk and low incidence of disease in ducklings. The optimum temperature for brood was 35 ° C at 1-2 days of age, 30-34 ° C at 3-7 days of age, 24-29 ° C at 8-14 days of age and 21-24 ° C at 15-21 days of age.
To master the temperature, should follow the age from small to large, descending in sequence, avoid high and low, to avoid excessive temperature difference. Because the ducklings’ constitution is strong and weak, the heat source used is different, the humidity and the ventilation condition which have close relation with the temperature are also different. Therefore, the adoption of the appropriate temperature best according to the mental state of the ducklings decided. When the temperature is too low, the ducklings are pressed into a pile, and the temperature should be raised appropriately. When the temperature is too high, the ducklings should gasp for air, keep away from the heat source, fidget, open their wings, and drink more water, and the temperature should be lowered, the ducklings scattered activities, in groups of three or five, lying position is very stretch, stretch neck wings, food after lying silent.
(4) humidity brood prophase, indoor temperature is higher, moisture evaporates quickly, at this time the relative humidity is higher.
If the humidity in the air is too low, ducklings are prone to dry toes, low spirits and other mild dehydration symptoms, affecting health and growth. Therefore, within 1 week of age, the relative humidity of the brood room should be maintained at 60% -70% , 2 weeks of age can be maintained at 50% -55% .
High temperature and high humidity not only prevent the loss of body heat of ducklings, lead to loss of appetite and poor spirit, but also facilitate the breeding of pathogenic microorganisms such as mold, ducklings are easy to get sick, such as low temperature and high humidity, it is more disadvantageous to ducklings, the damage is more serious; the body heat loss of ducklings, easy to catch cold disease, and increased feed consumption. Therefore, in the brood period to temperature as the main factor, the temperature and humidity combined to consider, strictly grasp, to achieve good results.
(5) ventilated ducklings have high body temperature and fast respiration. If the nursery is closed too tightly, the CO2 in the nursery will increase quickly. Inadequate ventilation may result in hypoxia. Especially in the higher room temperature, humidity, feces decomposition, volatile a lot of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide and other harmful gases, irritate the eyes, nose and respiratory tract, serious will cause poisoning. Therefore, the nursery to regular ventilation. South-facing windows should be kept open to keep the air fresh. At all times to prevent the wind blowing straight duck body.
(6) the ducklings under the light regime need the sunlight especially. Sunlight can raise the temperature of duck’s body surface, enhance blood circulation, promote the synthesis of vitamin D 3, promote bone growth, and can increase appetite, stimulate the digestive system, help metabolism. Under the condition that natural light can not be used or the time of natural light is insufficient, artificial light can be used to make up for it. Brood period, the intensity of light can be greater, the time can be longer. At the first week of age, light can reach 20-23 hours a day. Starting from the 2nd week of age, the light intensity is gradually reduced and the light time is shortened. Starting from the 3rd week of age, it is necessary to distinguish different situations, such as brood in the first half of the year, using natural sunlight in the daytime, and lighting with dim light at night, feed only with high light for half an hour; if the second half of the year brood, due to the sunshine time, can be appropriately increased in the evening light for 1-2 hours, the rest of the night still with dim light illumination. In addition to temperature, humidity, air, light and other environmental conditions, water quality, feeding density and noise, have a greater impact on ducklings, it should be noted.
(7) the feeding densities of different types of ducks (meat type or egg type) are different. For the same type of duck, the stocking amount per square metre is different if the duck ages are different, or the growth stages are different, and for the same type of duck, although the duck ages are the same, the size of the shed is different due to the different feeding seasons, there are also differences in the number of ducks per square metre of duck house. Therefore, there should be room for relaxation in the Gross leasable area calculation of the duck house, but careful planning should be made to enhance the utilisation rate of the duck house when using it. The general principle is that, within the unit area, appropriate raise more in winter (increase density) , appropriate raise some in summer; large area of duck shed, raise density appropriate larger, small area of duck shed, raise density appropriate smaller; The Duck House of the Sports Ground is big, the feeding density can be suitably bigger, the duck house of the sports ground is small, the feeding density can be suitably smaller.
(8) effective disinfection is the main means to control duck disease. Disinfection is effective on a very clean basis. The environment can not have sewage, sewage, duck feathers, duck dung, dust, cobwebs and so on. According to the current breeding conditions of meat ducks and the incidence of disease, the selection of disinfectants should be aimed at bacteria, viruses, bacterial spores and coccidia oocysts. Such as 2% -3% caustic soda water spray disinfection; double-chain quaternary ammonium salt disinfectant spray disinfection; aldehyde disinfectant fumigation disinfection. Empty Fence 10-15 days, immediately after the duck house disinfection into the duck is wrong, should be sterilized after the empty dry 10-15 days, kill the pathogenic microorganisms in the house, do effective purification. The environment around the duck house should be kept clean and clean. When two batches of ducks are idle, disinfection should be carried out around the duck house, dormitories, cooking houses, warehouses, toilets, etc. , in particular, a number of ducks used to raise clothes and shoes and even bedding are sterilized, the use of disinfectant immersion, fumigation or UV light irradiation. Take the duck disinfection is not to sterilize the duck, not to the duck body spray, should hold the nozzle upward spray, from the ceiling, wall to the ground, the smaller the better droplets, winter with warm water, summer with cold water. Choose disinfectant when do not use acid and alkali class and have irritant odour disinfectant.
(9) biosafety isolation measures
1. No unnecessary contact or contact should be allowed between farmers. They should not visit each other, help each other or play together.
2. A fence or fence should be set up around the duck house. A disinfection pool should be set up at the entrance. The disinfection water should be changed once a week.
3. Put rodenticide around the Duck House regularly, and install barbed wire or plastic net on the air inlet and door and window of the duck house to prevent wild birds from entering the duck house, so as to reduce feed waste and spread of diseases.
4. After raising a batch of ducks, all the duck dung, bedding and sewage, sewage should be removed and disinfected in time.
5. The sick ducks were kept in isolation or eliminated in time, and the dead ducks were treated innocuously (burned, buried deeply, cooked) . The dead duck traders could not go near the duck house.
6. Always Wash your hands with disinfectant after contact with dead ducks.
7. Do not feed the next batch of ducks with the leftovers from the last batch.
8, all in and out, to ensure that every breeding households, even those that are close to each other, are all in and out, that is, unified entry of chicks, Unified Management, unified immunization, unified export, unified disinfection, only in this way can ensure the effect of small-scale disinfection and purification.